Childhood and Youth
Kasparov was on 13 April 1963 as Garik Weinstein in Baku born. His mother Klara Schagenowna Kasparjan was Armenian and native of Nagorno-Karabakh , an Armenian populated enclave in Azerbaijan. She was a music teacher. His Jewish father Kim Weinstein Moiseevich, who played violin, was the brother of the Azerbaijani composer Leonid Weinstein . Both parents had a university education and their son had an atmosphere of intellect and education at an early stage.
The age of five learned Garik, whose native language is Russian, his father, the rules of chess . In Kasparov’s own words: “I had never played chess, but I looked excited as she toiled and finally gave up in resignation. The next morning I showed them the train leading to the solution. ” From the age of seven Garik Weinstein received at the Palace of Young Pioneers in Baku regularly chess lessons.
1971 his father died at the age of 39 years on a malignant lymphoma . When Garik was twelve years old, his mother changed his name from Weinstein in Kasparov, the Russified version of Kasparjan
With ten years he was in the chess school of three-time world chess champion Mikhail Botvinnik . This became Kasparov’s chess father and at the same time role model, coach and critic. At 15, Garry took over in the chess school has a kind of assistant function and received award a certificate of the President of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR . 1976 and 1977 he was junior champion of the Soviet Union .
1979 Kasparov received the title of International Master . As early as 1980 was the then 17-year-old the title of Grand Master bestowed, in the same year he won in Dortmund consider the World Youth Championship . The influential Azerbaijani politician Heydar Aliyev promoted Kasparov from 1979.
The road to the World Cup
The Russian Anatoly Karpov had 1975 American Bobby Fischer replaced as world chess champion. The Soviet Chess Association expected the other Soviet chess champions Karpov to support, but not to oppose him in his further world championship bouts. The young Garr Kasparov opposed this. He refused his chess analyzes Anatoly Karpov for the world championship match in 1981 against Victor Korchnoi to provide. In order to prevent Kasparov in the following world championship cycle on the challenge of the world champion Karpov, in 1983 he was denied the exit to the match in the candidate tournament against Viktor Kortschnoi due to alleged security concerns. Kasparov had thus turned from the candidate tournament to the challenge of the world champion. Kortschnoi, however, did not want to advance without a fight and therefore proposed a new match against Kasparov. This match came and was won by Kasparov convincingly. This was the way for the world championship bouts against Anatoly Karpov.
World Championship fights
FIDE world championships
Kasparov qualified in the candidate struggles 1983/84 in convincing style as the challenger of the world champion. In the quarterfinals he beat in Moscow Alexander Beliavsky with 6: 3, in the semifinals in London Victor Korchnoi with 7: 4 and in the final in Vilnius former world champion Vassily Smyslov with 8.5: 4.5. Kasparov’s match against Anatoly Karpov at the World Chess Championship 1984 began on 10 September 1984 in Moscow. It was played after the mode has been common since the 1978 World Cup: World Cup should be, who had first won six games, drawn games did not count. After Karpov took the lead with a 4-0 win, Kasparov switched his competition tactics. Instead of continuing to attack impetuously and unsuccessfully, he played on draw and wanted to last as long as possible. After a long rematch, Karpov made the fifth victory, but then the world champion was exhausted. He grew physically and mentally more and more, lost 11 kilos of weight and had to be admitted to the hospital several times, while Kasparov remained fit.
Kasparov at the coronation ceremony as World Champion 1985.
Kasparov shortened the gap to 3: 5 within a few games, before the match on 15 February 1985 was broken off without results after 48 games with more than 300 hours of play. The demolition was carried out under still unexplained circumstances by the then FIDE Chairmen Florencio Campomanes , who officially with “consideration for the health of both players’ reasoned him. In his autobiography Political section 1987 Kasparov Campomanes accused his rival Karpov and chess leaders of the USSR of the conspiracy against him. At the same time, however, he admitted that his chances of the title had risen considerably due to the unsuccessful demolition. For the October 1985, the FIDE again offered a repeat of the competition in Moscow under modified mode. The number of games was limited to 24, the winner was the first to score 12.5 points, with Remispartien counting. A result of 12:12 should be regarded as title defense of the world champion. In this second world title fight in 1985 Kasparov won 13:11. On 9 November 1985, he became the 13th and 22nd youngest world champion of chess history.
Garry Kasparov defended his world title in three other encounters with Karpov: 1986 took place in London (the first 12 games) and Leningrad (the last 12 games) to a rematch competition after FIDE had surprisingly introduced in 1963 abolished rematch privilege of world champion again . Kasparov defended his title with 12.5: 11.5. 1987 played the two rivals its competition in Sevilla : With a victory in the 24th game Kasparov managed a 12:12 and tied the title defense. In 1990, Karpov was again qualified for the candidate battles. The half each in New York City and Lyon discharged competition won Kasparov with 12.5: 11.5.
Competitions against chess programs
Kasparov appeared often in competition with tournament reflection against chess programs on. In the 1980s he claimed that he would never be defeated by a chess program. In 1989 he played against from IBM – built computer Deep Thought two games, he won both. 1996 defeated Kasparov’s successor Deep Blue in a match over six games with 4: 2, but lost to the 1st race game as the first world chess champion ever under tournament conditions against a chess program. The following year, Kasparov defeated Deep Blue in the rematch with 2.5: 3.5. Kasparov considered the possibility that unauthorized human interventions might have taken place. The accusation was partly due to the fact that IBM gave him no insight into the computer protocols at that time. These were, however, published later.
In 2003, Kasparov played two matches with tournament reflection against PC – chess game. The match against Deep Junior over six games went 3: 3 from that encounter with Deep Fritz over four games ended in 2:2.
Kasparov’s retirement from chess
In November 2004 Kasparov won the Russian national championship. A planned 2003 match against the former FIDE world champion Ruslan Ponomariov came into being as little as a scheduled 2005 contest with the next FIDE world champion Rustam Kasimdzhanov . Kasparov made for these circumstances alone FIDE responsible and declared after the tournament of Linares on 10 March 2005 its withdrawal from professional chess. He explained that with almost forty-two years, he was getting more and more difficult to play a tournament without errors, and that he felt he was no longer part of it. At this time, led Kasparov the world rankings with an Elo rating of 2812 points from.
In May 2010 Kasparov confirmed not to regret his retreat.