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Kasparov’s Chess career in an nutshell

Childhood and Youth

Kasparov was on 13 April 1963 as Garik Weinstein in Baku born. His mother Klara Schagenowna Kasparjan was Armenian and native of Nagorno-Karabakh , an Armenian populated enclave in Azerbaijan. She was a music teacher. His Jewish father Kim Weinstein Moiseevich, who played violin, was the brother of the Azerbaijani composer Leonid Weinstein . Both parents had a university education and their son had an atmosphere of intellect and education at an early stage.

The age of five learned Garik, whose native language is Russian, his father, the rules of chess . In Kasparov’s own words: “I had never played chess, but I looked excited as she toiled  and finally gave up in resignation. The next morning I showed them the train leading to the solution. ”  From the age of seven Garik Weinstein received at the Palace of Young Pioneers in Baku regularly chess lessons.

1971 his father died at the age of 39 years on a malignant lymphoma . When Garik was twelve years old, his mother changed his name from Weinstein in Kasparov, the Russified version of Kasparjan
With ten years he was in the chess school of three-time world chess champion Mikhail Botvinnik . This became Kasparov’s chess father and at the same time role model, coach and critic. At 15, Garry took over in the chess school has a kind of assistant function and received award a certificate of the President of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR . 1976 and 1977 he was junior champion of the Soviet Union .

1979 Kasparov received the title of International Master . As early as 1980 was the then 17-year-old the title of Grand Master bestowed, in the same year he won in Dortmund consider the World Youth Championship . The influential Azerbaijani politician Heydar Aliyev promoted Kasparov from 1979.

The road to the World Cup

The Russian Anatoly Karpov had 1975 American Bobby Fischer replaced as world chess champion. The Soviet Chess Association expected the other Soviet chess champions Karpov to support, but not to oppose him in his further world championship bouts. The young Garr Kasparov opposed this. He refused his chess analyzes Anatoly Karpov for the world championship match in 1981 against Victor Korchnoi to provide. In order to prevent Kasparov in the following world championship cycle on the challenge of the world champion Karpov, in 1983 he was denied the exit to the match in the candidate tournament against Viktor Kortschnoi due to alleged security concerns. Kasparov had thus turned from the candidate tournament to the challenge of the world champion. Kortschnoi, however, did not want to advance without a fight and therefore proposed a new match against Kasparov. This match came and was won by Kasparov convincingly. This was the way for the world championship bouts against Anatoly Karpov.

World Championship fights

FIDE world championships

Kasparov qualified in the candidate struggles 1983/84 in convincing style as the challenger of the world champion. In the quarterfinals he beat in Moscow Alexander Beliavsky with 6: 3, in the semifinals in London Victor Korchnoi with 7: 4 and in the final in Vilnius former world champion Vassily Smyslov with 8.5: 4.5. Kasparov’s match against Anatoly Karpov at the World Chess Championship 1984 began on 10 September 1984 in Moscow. It was played after the mode has been common since the 1978 World Cup: World Cup should be, who had first won six games, drawn games did not count. After Karpov took the lead with a 4-0 win, Kasparov switched his competition tactics. Instead of continuing to attack impetuously and unsuccessfully, he played on draw and wanted to last as long as possible. After a long rematch, Karpov made the fifth victory, but then the world champion was exhausted. He grew physically and mentally more and more, lost 11 kilos of weight and had to be admitted to the hospital several times, while Kasparov remained fit.
Kasparov at the coronation ceremony as World Champion 1985.

Kasparov shortened the gap to 3: 5 within a few games, before the match on 15 February 1985 was broken off without results after 48 games with more than 300 hours of play. The demolition was carried out under still unexplained circumstances by the then FIDE Chairmen Florencio Campomanes , who officially with “consideration for the health of both players’ reasoned him. In his autobiography Political section 1987 Kasparov Campomanes accused his rival Karpov and chess leaders of the USSR of the conspiracy against him. At the same time, however, he admitted that his chances of the title had risen considerably due to the unsuccessful demolition. For the October 1985, the FIDE again offered a repeat of the competition in Moscow under modified mode. The number of games was limited to 24, the winner was the first to score 12.5 points, with Remispartien counting. A result of 12:12 should be regarded as title defense of the world champion. In this second world title fight in 1985 Kasparov won 13:11. On 9 November 1985, he became the 13th and 22nd youngest world champion of chess history.

Garry Kasparov defended his world title in three other encounters with Karpov: 1986 took place in London (the first 12 games) and Leningrad (the last 12 games) to a rematch competition after FIDE had surprisingly introduced in 1963 abolished rematch privilege of world champion again . Kasparov defended his title with 12.5: 11.5. 1987 played the two rivals its competition in Sevilla : With a victory in the 24th game Kasparov managed a 12:12 and tied the title defense. In 1990, Karpov was again qualified for the candidate battles. The half each in New York City and Lyon discharged competition won Kasparov with 12.5: 11.5.

Competitions against chess programs

Kasparov appeared often in competition with tournament reflection against chess programs on. In the 1980s he claimed that he would never be defeated by a chess program. In 1989 he played against from IBM – built computer Deep Thought two games, he won both. 1996 defeated Kasparov’s successor Deep Blue in a match over six games with 4: 2, but lost to the 1st race game as the first world chess champion ever under tournament conditions against a chess program. The following year, Kasparov defeated Deep Blue in the rematch with 2.5: 3.5. Kasparov considered the possibility that unauthorized human interventions might have taken place. The accusation was partly due to the fact that IBM gave him no insight into the computer protocols at that time. These were, however, published later.

In 2003, Kasparov played two matches with tournament reflection against PC – chess game. The match against Deep Junior over six games went 3: 3 from that encounter with Deep Fritz over four games ended in 2:2.

Kasparov’s retirement from chess

In November 2004 Kasparov won the Russian national championship. A planned 2003 match against the former FIDE world champion Ruslan Ponomariov came into being as little as a scheduled 2005 contest with the next FIDE world champion Rustam Kasimdzhanov . Kasparov made for these circumstances alone FIDE responsible and declared after the tournament of Linares on 10 March 2005 its withdrawal from professional chess. He explained that with almost forty-two years, he was getting more and more difficult to play a tournament without errors, and that he felt he was no longer part of it. At this time, led Kasparov the world rankings with an Elo rating of 2812 points from.

In May 2010 Kasparov confirmed not to regret his retreat.

Anatoly Karpov. The chess legend.

About Anatoly Karpov

Anatoly Karpov learned the chess game at the age of four from his father, an engineer. At ten he was already champion of Zlatoust, twelve he was first after Moscow invited to attend a course at the Soviet chess school participate. Mikhail Botvinnik was initially unimpressed by the rather cautious game the frail boy, but then changed his mind when he realized how seriously to Karpov devoted to chess. He was first sent abroad already the end of 1966 and won a tournament in Třinec . In 1967 he was in Groningen Junior European Champion, before competitors like Jan Timman and András Adorján . In 1969 he won the World Youth Championship in Stockholm . Shortly before, he had begun with Semyon Furman work which influenced his chess development greatly. In 1970, Karpow became the youngest player at the time. He scored a major success in 1971 with his with Leonid Stein shared 1st place at Alekhine Memorial Tournament in Moscow. His first Chess Olympiad , he played in 1972 in Skopje and products obtained with 13 points from 15 games an excellent result. As a youth world champion he was pre-qualified for the International in Leningrad in 1973, he tied with Viktor Korchnoi won.

Later he qualified in several competitions as a challenger to the world champion Bobby Fischer . After he initially Polugajewski (5.5: 2.5) and then Boris Spassky (7: 4) had turned, he defeated in the final of the candidate contests his compatriot Viktor Korchnoi with 12.5: 11.5. When fishing for title defense in 1975 did not compete, Karpov was declared on April 3, 1975 World Champion. In the following years he played a lot of tournaments to underline his claim as the best chess player in the world. In 1976 he won the first time the USSR championship . His world title he defended twice ( 1978 in Baguio and in 1981 in Merano successfully against Korchnoi). After the second defense Karpov was Lenin Medal awarded. These competitions were held in a very tense atmosphere, because Karpov as line-faithful representative of the Soviet Union was, while Korchnoi as dissident who emigrated to the West.

 

Life

In the World Chess Championship 1985 Karpov lost his title to Garry Kasparov and could neither win him in a rematch in 1986 nor in 1987 or 1990 to recapture. Only when Kasparov the world chess organization FIDE broke and was disqualified as an official world champion Karpov was in 1993 by a 12.5: 8.5 win against Jan Timman the now divided world championship again and also keep to 1999th  During this period, he scored some major successes, including a convincing win in Linares in 1994. He scored 11 points from 13 games and won with 2.5 points ahead of Kasparov and Shirov – a success that the as a Superior tournament victory in the history of chess. At that time he had his best Elo on of 2780 (July 1994).

From 1975 to 1984 he was the clear number one, from 1985 to mid-1990 the unchallenged number two in chess. He is considered one of the best players of all time. The Chess Oscar as the best player of the year, he won a total of nine times. There are more than 100 tournament victories, which is a world record. 1978 he was for his services Order of the Red Banner of Labor awarded.

Karpov wrote several chess books which have been translated into German, including my best games and Karpov Chess School. An autobiography he published in 1991 in English under the title Karpov on Karpov.

In recent years, Karpov has formed numerous chess schools, both in the successor states of the Soviet Union, as well as in the USA, South America and Europe. In Germany the Karpow-Schachakademie Rhein-Neckar e. V. takes its name. Since 2009, Karpov has been holding the title FIDE Senior Trainer. Since 1994 he is a member of the Chess Association in 1930 Hockenheim . In 2010, he ran for the post of President of FIDE. He was nominated for the German Chess Federation . In the election on 29 September 2010 he defeated the incumbent Kirsan Ilyumzhinov with 55 to 95 votes.

Karpov is a member of the party United Russia and was in the general election in December 2011 as a representative of the Tyumen Oblast in the Russian Duma voted. Karpov is patron of the “International Children’s Home” (Intercom) in Ivanhoe .

In his spare time he works on philately . His valuable collection includes chess motifs and other specialties.

After Karpov also discovered in December 2003 Asteroid (90414) Karpov from the main belt was named. Dmitry Medvedev awarded him with the Presidential Decree N ° 660 22 May 2011 the Order of Friendship .

Karpov is the father of two children and was married twice. From the first marriage with Irina Kuimowa comes a son (* 1979). With his second wife, Natalia Bulanova, he has a joint daughter (* 1999).

Elo Development

This graph shows the Elo developing Karpov:

 

National
Chess Olympiad 1980 in Malta USSR-USA: Anatoly Karpov, Mikhail Tal and Yasser Seirawan

Karpov took the Soviet national team in six Chess Olympiads in part ( in 1972 the first reserve player, in 1974 , 1980 and 1982 respectively on top board, 1986 and 1988 on the second board) and won this all. In 1972, 1974 and 1988, he also won the individual evaluation on his board. He also won the World Team Championships in 1985 and 1989 (each on top board of the Soviet Union)and the European Team Championships 1973 (on the fourth board), 1977, 1980 and 1983 (each on top board), where he in 1973 and 1977 an additional individual Gold medal won.  Karpov in 1984 for the competition USSR vs. the world called to the top board of the Soviet team, reaching against Ulf Andersson one win and three draws.

Teams he fought for

During the existence of the Soviet Union Karpov played for CSKA Moscow , with whom he 1986 European Club Cup won.  On the Russian team championship he took part from 2006 to 2008 with the South Urals Chelyabinsk.  In the German Chess Bundesliga he had in the 1993/94 season four bets for SC Stadthagen, since the 2011/12 season he played in the 1. Bundesliga occasionally for SV 1930 Hockenheim . The Austrian State League A won Karpov in 1993 with the SC Margareten, in which he until 1997/98 was reported, but had no more betting. In the Spanish team championship Karpov played in 1995 and 1996 for CA La Caja de Canarias, 2001 and 2003 for CA Valencia.